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Praise And Blame | Internet Encyclopedia Of Philosophy

1. Introduction 2. The Problem of Free Will 3. Two Contrasting Approaches 1. The Utilitarian Account 2. The Aristotelian Account 4. The Kantian Account and Moral Worth 5. The Idea of Moral Worth 6. Conclusion 7. References and Further Reading

Actived: Tuesday Apr 13, 2021

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Sankhya | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Sankhya. Sāṅkhya (often spelled Sāṁkhya) is one of the major “orthodox” (or Hindu) Indian philosophies. Two millennia ago it was the representative Hindu philosophy.Its classical formulation is found in Īśvarakṛṣṇa’s Sāṅkhya-Kārikā (ca. 350 C.E.), a condensed account in seventy-two verses. It is a strong Indian example of metaphysical dualism, but unlike many Western ...

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Pyrrho | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) The proper course of the sage, said Pyrrho, is to ask himself three questions. Firstly we must ask what things are and how they are constituted. Secondly, we ask how we are related to these things. Thirdly, we ask what ought to be our attitude towards them. As to what …

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Huineng (Hui-neng) | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

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Panpsychism | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) In a general sense, panpsychism may be defined as the view that all things possess mind, or some mind-like quality. The specific meanings of “all things” and “mind” vary widely among particular thinkers, but there is a broad consensus on three points. First, the mind in all things is something internal to, or inherent in, things themselves (as opposed to being injected or sustained by some outside entity). Second, such mind has a sort of focus or unity to it, in that it is typically assumed t...

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Lyotard, Jean-François | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

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History, Philosophy of | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Hegel’s lecture series on the Introduction to the Philosophy of History (published posthumously in 1837) is a sort of secular eschatology, wherein the course of reality is considered a single epochal evolution toward a providential end. This is cognized by an increasingly unfolding awareness according to …

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Ancient Greek Skepticism | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) The distinction between Academic and Pyrrhonian skepticism continues to be a controversial topic. In the Second Century C.E., the Roman author Aulus Gellius already refers to this as an old question treated by many Greek writers(Attic Nights11.5.6, see Striker [1981/1996]). The biggest obstacle to correctly making this distinction is that it is misleading to describe Academic and Pyrrhonian skepticism as distinctly unified views in the first place since different Academics and Pyrrhonists seem to have understood their skepti…

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Anselm | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

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Totalitarianism | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) The term “totalitarianism” dates to the fascist era of the 1920s and 1930s, and it was first used and popularised by Italian fascist theorists, including Giovanni Gentile. It progressively came to be extended to include not just extreme utopian dictatorships of the far right, but also Communist regimes, especially that of the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin. It is still frequently associated with Cold War thought of the 1940s and 1950s, a period during which it was most widely utilised as a governing concept, although it…

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Gnosticism | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Gnosticism, as an intellectual product, is grounded firmly in the general human act of reflecting upon existence. The Gnostics were concerned with the basic questions of existence or “being-in-the-world” (Dasein)—that is: who we are (as human beings), where we have come from, and where we are heading, historically and spiritually (cf. Hans Jonas, The Gnostic Religion 1958, p. 334). These questions lie at the very root of philosophical thinking; but the answers provided by the Gnostics go beyond philosophical s…

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Xenophanes | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Xenophanes was from a small town of Colophon in Ionia and most recent scholars place the date of his birth sometime around 570-560 B.C.E. He appeared to live into his nineties, thereby placing his death sometime after 478 B.C.E. This is indicated by the following lines from one of Xenophanes’ remaining fragments, which shows him to still be writing poetry at ninety-two years of age: He seems to have left his home at an early age and spent much of his life wandering around Greece, often reciting his poetry at t…

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Analytic Philosophy | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) During the 1960s, criticism from within and without caused the analytic movement to abandon its linguistic form. Linguistic philosophy gave way to the philosophy of language, the philosophy of language gave way to metaphysics, and this gave way to a variety of philosophical sub-disciplines. Thus the fifth phase, beginning in the mid 1960s and continuing beyond the end of the twentieth century, is characterized by eclecticism or pluralism. This post-linguistic analytic philosophy cannot be defined in terms of a commo…

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Color | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

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Smith, Adam | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) a. Early Life and Influences Adam Smith was born in June, 1723, in Kirkcaldy, a port town on the eastern shore of Scotland; the exact date is unknown. His father, the Comptroller and Collector of Customs, died while Smith’s mother was pregnant but left the family with adequate resources for their financial well being. Young Adam was edu…

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Knowledge | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) We talk of knowledge: all of us do; philosophers do. But what is knowledge? We can best answer that potentially complex question in several stages. Let us begin by considering whether there are different kinds of knowledge. Epistemologists have contemplated at least the following general possibilities.

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Thrasymachus | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

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Bakhtin Circle, The | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) In the course of Dostoyevsky’s novels, argues Bakhtin, very much in the spirit of Cassirer, the worldviews of Dostoyevsky’s heroes “unfold”, presenting their own unique perspective upon the world. The novelist does not, as is the case with Tolstoi, submerge all positions beneath a single authoritative perspective, but allows the voice ...

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Wang Yangming (Wang Shou-Jen) | Internet Encyclopedia of ...

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Santayana, George | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

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Mencius (Mengzi) | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

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Meaning of LIfe: Contemporary Analytic Perspectives ...

Posted: (0 seconds ago) The human desire for meaning finds vivid expression in the stories we tell, diaries we keep, and in our deepest hopes and fears. According to twentieth century Freudian psychoanalyst Bruno Bettelheim, “our greatest need and most difficult achievement is to find meaning in our lives” (Bettelheim 1978: 3). Holocaust survivor and psychiatrist Viktor Frankl said that the human will to meaning comes prior to either our will to pleasure or will to power (Frankl 2006: 99).Questions about meaning ari...

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Dreaming, Philosophy of | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) a. Descartes’ Dream Argument Descartes strove for certainty in the beliefs we hold. In his Meditations on First Philosophy he wanted to find out what we can believe with certainty and thereby claim as knowledge. He begins by stating that he is certain of being seated by the fire in front of him. He then dismisses the idea that this belief could be … b. Objections and Replies Since the Meditations on First Philosophy was published, Descartes’ argument has been replied to. One main claim that has been replied to is the idea that there are no certain marks to distinguish waking consciousness from dreaming. Hobbes believed that an absence of the absurd in waking life was a ke…

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Infinite | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Informally expressed, any infinite set can be matched up to a part of itself; so the whole is equivalent to a part. This is a surprising definition because, before this definition was adopted, the idea that actually infinite wholes are equinumerous with some of their parts was taken as clear evidence that the concept of actual infinity is inherently paradoxical.

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Philo of Alexandria | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

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Hume, Imagination | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Hume writes that “men are mightily govern’d by the imagination” (T 3.2.7.2; SBN 534). And imagination is a kind of thought. To understand Hume’s views about imaginative thought, specifically, we must first examine some of his views about thought in general: his distinction between impressions and ideas; his distinction between simple and complex perceptions; and his Copy Principle. Hume’s main discussions of these topics are in A Treatise of Human Nature (hereafter, Treatise) Book 1, Part 1, Section 1; paragra…

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Russian Philosophy | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Although one can find scattered remarks of a philosophical nature in Russian writings before the mid-eighteenth century, these are at best of marginal interest to the professionally trained philosopher. For the most part, these remarks were not intended to stand as rational arguments in support of a position. Even in the ecclesiastic academies, the thin scholastic veneer of the accepted texts was merely a traditional schematic device, a relic from the time when the only appropriate texts available were Western. For wh…

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Philosophy of Religion | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) The practice of philosophy, especially in the analytic tradition, places emphasis on precision of terms and clarity of concepts and ideas. Religious language is often vague, imprecise, and couched in mystery. In the twentieth century this linguistic imprecision was challenged by philosophers who used a principle of verifiability to reject as meaningless all non-empirical claims. For these logical positivists, only the tautologies of mathematics and logic, along with statements containing empi...

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Presocratics | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Difficulties are perhaps inevitable any time we lump a group of variegated thinkers under one name. The so-called Presocratic philosophers were a group of different thinkers hailing from different places at different times, many who of whom thought about different things. To call them all Presocratic thinkers can seem too sweepingly broad and inaccurate, or insensitive to the differences between each of the thinkers. Even, and perhaps especially, where there are similarities, Presocratic seems unsatisfactory. …

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Aristotle: Logic | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) To those used to the silver tones of an accomplished writer like Plato, Aristotle’s prose will seem, at first glance, a difficult read. What we have are largely notes, written at various points in his career, for different purposes, edited and cobbled together by later followers. The style of the resulting collection is often rambling, repetitious, obscure, and disjointed. There are many arcane, puzzling, and perhaps contradictory passages. This problem is compounded by the abstract, technical vocabulary logic someti…

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Cicero | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

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Consciousness | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Of course, this doesn’t mean that some such theory isn’t correct. One exciting aspect of this approach is the resulting interdisciplinary interest it has generated among physicists and other scientists in the problem of consciousness.

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Spinoza, Benedict De | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

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Ross, William David | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

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Knowledge Argument Against Physicalism | Internet ...

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Hindu Philosophy | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) This of course invites the contrary proposal, that Plato was influenced by the Sāṅkhya system. While Indian philosophers had an important impact on the course of ancient Greek philosophy (through Pyrrho of Elis, who traveled to India in the 3rd cent. B.C.E. and was impressed by a type of dialectic nihilism characteristic of some Buddhist ...

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Language of Thought Hypothesis | Internet Encyclopedia of ...

Posted: (0 seconds ago) a. Combinatorial Syntax and Compositional Semantics LOTH is the claim that mental representation has a linguistic structure. A representational system has a linguistic structure if it employs both a combinatorial syntax and a compositional semantics (see Fodor and Pylyshyn 1988 for this account of linguistic structuring). A representational system possesses a co… b. Mental Processes as Causal-Syntactic Processes Representational systems with combinatorial syntax and compositional semantics are incredibly important, as they allow for processes to be defined over the syntax of the system of representations that will nevertheless respect constraints on the semantics of those representations. For example, standard … c. RTM and the Propositional Attitudes LOTH is a specification of the representational theory of mind (RTM). RTM is the thesis that commonsense mental states, the propositional attitudes such as believing, desiring, hoping, wishing, and fearing are relations between a subject and a mental representation. According to RTM, a propositiona…

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Lacan, Jacques | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan was born in Paris on April 13 1901 to a family of solid Catholic tradition, and was educated at a Jesuit school. After completing his baccalauréat he commenced studying medicine and later psychiatry. In 1927, Lacan commenced clinical training and began to work at psychiatric institutions, meeting and working with (amongst others) the famous psychiatrist Gaetan Gatian de Clerambault. His doctoral thesis, on paranoid psychosis, was passed in 1932. In 1934, he became a...

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Poincare’s Philosophy of Mathematics | Internet ...

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Karl Popper: Political Philosophy | Internet Encyclopedia ...

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Xenophon | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

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Evolutionary Psychology | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Modern Evolutionary Psychology has its roots in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when psychologist Leda Cosmides and anthropologist John Tooby from Harvard joined the anthropologist Donald Symons at The University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) where they currently co-direct the Center for Evolutionary Psychology. It gained wide attention in 1992 with the publication of the landmark volume The Adapted Mindby Jerome Barkow, Leda Cosmides and John Tooby, and since then numerous textbooks (for exa…

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Justification, Epistemic | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Consider your simplest, most obvious beliefs: the color of the sky, the date of your birth, what chocolate tastes like. Are these beliefs justified for you? What would explain the rightness or fittingness of these beliefs? One prominent account of justification is that a belief is justified for a person only if she has a good reasonfor holding it. If you were to ask me why I believe the sky is blue and I were to answer that I am just guessing or that my horoscope told me, you would likely not consider either a good reason. In e…

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Nietzsche, Friedrich | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

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God and Time | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Theism is the view that there exists a person who is, in significant ways, unlike every other person. This person, whom we will call \"God,\" is the creator of the entire universe. Atheism is the view that such a person does not exist. Any theistic world-view includes some notion of how God is related to this universe. There must be some account of how God relates to events, things, and people within the universe and of how God is related to what we could call the structure of the universe. Tha...

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Law, Philosophy of | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

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Ockham (Occam), William of | Internet Encyclopedia of ...

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Very little biographical information about Ockham survives. There is a record of his ordination in the year 1306. From this, we infer that he was born between 1280 and 1285, presumably in the small town of Ockham, twenty-five miles southwest of London, England. The medieval church in this town, All Saints, recently installed a stained glass window of Ockham because it is probably the church in which he grew up. Nevertheless, we know nothing of Ockham’s childhood or family. Most likely, he spo...

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Religious Epistemology | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Reason is a fallible human tool for discovering truth or grasping reality. Although reason aims at the truth, it may fall short. In addition, rationality is more a matter of how one believes than whatone believes. For example, one might irrationally believe something that is true: suppose one believed that the center of the earth is molten metal because one believes that he or she travels there every night (while it’s cool). And one might rationally believe what is false: it was rational for most people twenty centuries ago to believ…

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Copyright & Reprint Information | Internet Encyclopedia of ...

Posted: (0 seconds ago) For educational course packets reproduced by either college-run print shops or private copy services such as Kinko’s: all IEP material can be used free of charge, and contacting the IEP is not required.

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