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Participant Observation: A Guide For Educators And Social

As Mac an Ghaill (1994) has argued, the participant observer collects data by participating in the daily life of those he or she is studying. ‘The approach is close to everyday interaction, involving conversations to discover participants’ interpretations of situations they are involved in’ (Becker 1958, p. 652). The aim of participant observation is to produce a ‘thick description’ of social interaction within natural settings. At the same time informants are encouraged to use their own language and everyday concepts to describe w…

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Detail: https://infed.org/participant-observation-a-guide-for-educators-and-social-practitioners/

Michel Foucault: Power, subjectivity and education – infed ...

Posted: (52 years ago) Mar 27, 2020  · Of course, there are always the formal constraints of grammar and logic, which exclude certain formulations as gibberish (meaningless) or illogical (self-contradictory). … But Foucault’s idea is that every mode of thinking involves implicit rules (maybe not even formulable by those following them) that materially restrict the range of thought.

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Casework and the Charity Organization Society – infed.org:

Posted: (52 years ago) Jun 20, 2019  · Casework and the Charity Organization Society. Founded in 1869, the Charity Organization Society (COS) made a deep impact on social work through its advocacy and codification of emerging methods. This, with its focus on the family, and upon a scientific approach provided a key foundation for the development of social work as profession in Britain.

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What is learning? A definition and discussion – infed.org:

Posted: (52 years ago) Some years ago, Säljö (1979) carried out a simple, but very useful piece of research. He asked adult students what they understood by learning. Their responses fell into five main categories: 1. Learning as a quantitative increase in knowledge. Learning is acquiring information or ‘knowing a lot’. 2. Learning as memorising. Learning is storing information that can be reproduced. 3. Learning as acquiring facts, skills, and methods that can be retained and usedas necessary. 4. Learning as making sense or abstra…

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Lifespan development and lifelong learning – infed.org:

Posted: (52 years ago) How are we to define development? The first and obvious element is change – that development involves movement from one state to another. As a result an interest in development leads one to a concern for transitions. How is it that a person moves from this state to that? A second aspect is that this change is understood to have a permanent or lasting impact, or at least having some degree of ‘carry-forward‘. However, development is not change of any kind. Third, in common usage developmental ofte…

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What is curriculum? Exploring theory and practice – infed.org:

Posted: (52 years ago) Many people still equate a curriculum with a syllabus. Syllabus, naturally, originates from the Greek (although there was some confusion in its usage due to early misprints). Basically it means a concise statement or table of the heads of a discourse, the contents of a treatise, the subjects of a series of lectures. In the form that many of us will have been familiar with it is connected with courses leading to examinations – teachers talk of the syllabus associated with, say, the Cambridge Board French GSCE …

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The learning organization: principles, theory and practice ...

Posted: (52 years ago) The emergence of the idea of the ‘learning organization’ is wrapped up with notions such as ‘the learning society’. Perhaps the defining contribution here was made by Donald Schon. He provided a theoretical framework linking the experience of living in a situation of an increasing change with the need for learning. One of Schon’s great innovations was to explore the extent to which companies, social movements and governments were learning systems – and how those systems could be enhanced. H…

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Posted: (52 years ago) A resource for community education, informal adult education, community work, youth work, youth development, animation and social pedagogy.

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Relationship, learning and education – infed.org:

Posted: (52 years ago) Relationship is one of those words often used, but taken for granted. We ‘know’ what it means. We know relationships are important. We know relationships can be difficult. We know relationships can bring great happiness and sadness. But what actually is a relationship in the context of human behaviour? George Goetschius and Joan Tash (1967: 137), in one of the classic texts of youth work, provide us with a good starting point: ‘A relationship is a connection between two people in which some sort of exchange …

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Evaluation for education, learning and change – theory and ...

Posted: (52 years ago) Much of the current interest in evaluation theory and practice can be directly linked to the expansion of government programmes (often described as the ‘New Deal’) during the 1930s in the United States and the implementation of various initiatives during the 1960s (such as Kennedy’s ‘War on Poverty’) (see Shadish, Cork and Leviton 1991). From the 1960s-on ‘evaluation’ grew as an activity, a specialist field of employment with its own professional bodies, and as a body of theory. With large sums of state money …

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Howard Gardner, multiple intelligences and education ...

Posted: (52 years ago) Howard Gardner was born in Scranton, Pennsylvania in 1943. His parents had fled from Nürnberg in Germany in 1938 with their three-year old son, Eric. Just prior to Howard Gardner’s birth Eric was killed in a sleighing accident. These two events were not discussed during Gardner’s childhood, but were to have a very significant impact upon his thinking and development (Gardner 1989: 22). The opportunities for risky physical activity were limited, and creative and intellectual pursuits encouraged. As Howard bega…

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Mahatma Gandhi on education – infed.org:

Posted: (52 years ago) Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born in 1869 in Porbander on the West coast of India. He had a reasonably conventional middle class Indian upbringing. His father (Karamchand) was the senior official (dewan or prime minister) of a small Indian state (Porbandar) before moving on to be the chief karbhari (adviser) in the principality of Rajkot. He looked to his son to follow in his footsteps. Gandhi went to school, did not particularly excel at anything but learned the things that were expected of him. He marri…

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Happiness and education – theory, practice ... - infed.org

Posted: (52 years ago) The key here, of course, lies in the interaction between our genetic predispositions and other factors such as our upbringing (Shah and Marks 2004: 5). Life circumstances such as our income, possessions, and relationships as well as things like the nature of our neighbourhood and jobs play a part.

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Jerome Bruner and the process of education – infed.org:

Posted: (52 years ago) Bruner was born in New York City and later educated at Duke University and Harvard (from which he was awarded a PhD in 1947). During World War II, Bruner worked as a social psychologist exploring propaganda public opinion and social attitudes for U.S. Army intelligence. After obtaining his PhD he became a member of faculty, serving as professor of psychology, as well as cofounder and director of the Center for Cognitive Studies. Beginning in the 1940s, Jerome Bruner, along with Leo Postman, worked …

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Karl Marx and education – infed.org:

Posted: (52 years ago) Karl Marx was born in Trier on May 5, 1818. He studied at the universities of Bonn, Berlin, and Jena. His early writings for, and editorship of, the Cologne newspaper Rheinische Zeitung brought him quickly into conflict with the government. He was critical of social conditions and existing political arrangements. In 1843 after only a year in post, Marx was compelled to resign as editor. Soon afterwards the paper was also forced to stop publication. Marx then went to Paris (where he first met Engels). His radicalism had …

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Pierre Bourdieu on education: Habitus, capital, and field ...

Posted: (52 years ago) Pierre Bourdieu’s (1930-2002) theorizing has become a major focus for exploration within sociology. His work, and that of Michel Foucault, is amongst the most frequently cited of the late twentieth-century social theorists. New generations of researchers have continued to look to him (see, for example, Thatcher et. al. 2018) and with justification. Bourdieu’s exploration of how the social order is reproduced, and inequality persists across generations, is more pertinent than ever. The concepts he marshals shed con…

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What is education? A definition and discussion – infed.org:

Posted: (52 years ago) When talking about education people often confuse it with schooling. Many think of places like schools or colleges when seeing or hearing the word. They might also look to particular jobs like teacher or tutor. The problem with this is that while looking to help people learn, the way a lot of schools and teachers operate is not necessarily something we can properly call education. They have chosen or fallen or been pushed into ‘schooling’ – trying to drill learning into people according to some plan often drawn up by ot…

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Globalization: theory and experience – infed.org:

Posted: (52 years ago) Manuel Castells (1996) has argued persuasively that in the last twenty years or so of the twentieth century, a new economy emerged around the world. He characterizes it as a new brand of capitalism that has three fundamental features: This last idea runs through a lot of the discussion of globalization. Globalization and de-localization. Many of the activities that previously involved face-to-face interaction, or that were local, are now conducted across great distances. There has been a significant de-localizati…

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Informal, non-formal and formal education ... - infed.org

Posted: (52 years ago) At about the same time as planners were seeking to re-define fundamental educational concepts in terms of new economic and social development priorities, UNESCO had published (1972) its forward looking `Faure Report’ on the future of education. The Report was a classic re-statement of the humanistic and scientific bases of educational thought; but it was also written in a way which placed education within a framework of other kinds of economic and social development. At its core was the concept of the lear…

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Using informal education – Chapter 9: where practice ...

Posted: (52 years ago) This, of course, is true wherever learning fails to relate to life. Expectations. We can compare a young African or Afro-Caribbean entering a liberal British school in the 1950s and a mature student embarking on a course of further education with a commitment to informal learning.

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From social education to social and life skills training ...

Posted: (52 years ago) Jun 20, 2019  · Of course, I doubt neither the sincerity nor even the accuracy of such assurances on tactics. What I do question, though, is the long-term strategic effects for youth work of acting according to principles which are alien to the relatively enlightened forms of practice which, in the post-Albemarle period, it so painstakingly constructed.

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The service of youth and young people’s colleges – infed.org:

Posted: (52 years ago) 317. Our terms of reference require us to deal with the supply and training of Youth Leaders as well as teachers; and it seems proper to us to consider at the same time the supply and training of teachers for the new Young People’s Colleges. These colleges for the compulsory part-time education of boys and girls up to 18 years of age are bound to influence the shape and the activities of the Youth Service. What the precise effect will be no one can say until there has been a fairly prolonged period of interaction bet…

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What is youth work? Exploring the history, theory and ...

Posted: (52 years ago) For those looking for the origins of what we now know as ‘youth work’, a common starting point is the development of Sunday Schools associated with churches and chapels in last few years of the eighteenth century, and, in particular, the activities of pioneers such as Robert Raikes and Hannah More as an important forerunner of the work. Sunday Schools schools often used more informal ways of working and later developed a range of activities including team sports and day trips. It is also possible to look t…

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What is competence? What is competency? – infed.org:

Posted: (52 years ago) In the discussion that occurred in the 1980s in the UK competence was basically approached as ‘the ability to do a particular activity to a prescribed standard (Working Group on Vocational Qualifications 1986). UDACE proclaimed that ‘competence is concerned with what people can do rather than what they know’. They went on: The language of competence is often misunderstood. This is, according to CeVe, because of its association with vocational training and skill rather than understandin…

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Informal learning: theory, practice and experience - infed.org

Posted: (52 years ago) Commentators in the UK adult education and lifelong learning field have shown an increasing interest in informal learning. Bentley (1998) has examined ‘learning beyond the classroom’; Coffield (2000) ‘the necessity of informal learning’; Marsick and Watkins (1990) and Dale and Bell (1999) ‘informal and incidental learning in the workplace’; and McGiveney (1999) ‘informal learning in the community’. However, this interest has not been reflected in any significant way thus far in policy statements and re…

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What can education learn from the arts about the practice ...

Posted: (52 years ago) As we know when, in the fourth quarter of the 19th century, education was coming into its own as a field of study it received its initial guidance from psychology. It was the early psychologists who were interested in making psychology a scientific enterprise, one that emulated the work done in the so-called “hard sciences.” Their aim was to develop a physics of psychology; what they called psychophysics and, consistent with their mission, made laboratories rather than studios the venues for their work. Peo…

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George Goetschius, community development and detached ...

Posted: (52 years ago) George Goetschius was born in Little Neck, Long Island on March 17 1923. He studied sociology at New York University and this was followed by an MA at Columbia in 1947. Harriet Devine (2006b) reports that following on from his studies he worked as a settlement worker in Manhattan’s Lower East Side (at the Hamilton and Madison House settlements). At that time the area was going through considerable changes. It had become populated primarily by African-Americans and Hispanics and there was consid…

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Robert A. Woods: University settlements: their point and ...

Posted: (52 years ago) Robert Archey Woods (1965-1925) was a key figure in the introduction and development of university and social settlements in the United States. Founder and Head of South End House, Boston (1895-1925) and Secretary of the National Federation of Settlements from 1911 to just before his death he was both an important animator and organizer, and exponent of settlement work.

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Will Reason: Settlements and education – infed.org:

Posted: (52 years ago) Jan 20, 2020  · From the simply educational point of view, of course, it is the discussion, not the subject, that is essential. Where teachers and members prefer it, the range may be over social, literary, or scientific topics. The main thing is to obviate the drudgery of elementary learning by an atmosphere of good fellowship and the introduction of what ...

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Developing youth work: Chapter 7 – Informal education ...

Posted: (52 years ago) Informal education is often used to describe the learning activities of everyday life. These are then contrasted with those that occur within the ‘formality’ of the school or college. To this may be added further categories such as the non-formal: There are major problems involved in categorizations such as these. These can be demonstrated through a consideration of Jensen et al.’s (1964) well-known distinction between ‘natural societal settings’ and ‘formal instructional settings’: the former being descri…

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Facilitating learning and change in groups and group ...

Posted: (52 years ago) At heart facilitation is about the process of helping people to explore, learn and change. But what does facilitating involve? To start I want to take a popular definition of group facilitation by Roger Schwarz. Group facilitation is a process in which a person whose selection is acceptable to all members of the group, who is substantively neutral, and who has no substantive decision-making authority diagnoses and intervenes to help a group improve how it identifies and solves problems and makes decisions, to incre…

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Informal and non-formal education – infed.org:

Posted: (52 years ago) What is informal education?So what is informal education? Here Tony Jeffs and Mark K Smith cut a path through some of the confusion around the area. They focus on informal education as a spontaneous process of helping people to learn. Informal education they suggest, works through conversation, and the exploration and enlargement of experience. It’s purpose is to cultivate communities, associations and relationships that make for human flourishing. What is non-formal education?Within policy debates a co…

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Rabindranath Tagore on education – infed.org:

Posted: (52 years ago) Rabindranath did not write a central educational treatise, and his ideas must be gleaned through his various writings and educational experiments at Santiniketan In general, he envisioned an education that was deeply rooted in one’s immediate surroundings but connected to the cultures of the wider world, predicated upon pleasurable learning and individualized to the personality of the child. He felt that a curriculum should revolve organically around nature with classes held in the open air under the tr…

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Eduard C. Lindeman and the meaning of adult ... - infed.org

Posted: (52 years ago) May 08, 1997  · Eduard C. Lindeman and the meaning of adult education. Perhaps best known today for his work in adult education, Eduard C. Lindeman (1885 – 1953) also wrote one of the first books on community development, was an early explorer of groupwork and worked to extend popular education. In this piece, we explore his life and classic work The Meaning ...

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Writing and keeping journals. A guide for educators and ...

Posted: (52 years ago) Oct 19, 2019  · It might be that we resist journaling because it is something that others require or expect of us – such as when undertaking a course or working in particular fields. In this short piece we explore the benefits of writing and keeping journals – especially ‘learning journals’; why it is an important discipline for those called to educate ...

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Caring in education – infed.org:

Posted: (52 years ago) The relational sense of caring forces us to look at the relation. It is not enough to hear the teacher’s claim to care. Does the student recognize that he or she is cared for? Is the teacher thought by the student to be a caring teacher? When we adopt the relational sense of caring, we cannot look only at the teacher. This is a mistake that many researchers are making today. They devise instruments that measure to what degree teachers exhibit certain observable behaviors. A high score on such an instru…

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Malcolm X on education – infed.org:

Posted: (52 years ago) Malcolm became a letter writer and as a result he says that he “stumbled upon starting to acquire some kind of homemade education”. He became extremely frustrated at not being able to express what he wanted to convey in letters that he wrote. He says that “in the street I had been the most articulate hustler out there … But now, trying to write simple English, I not only wasn’t articulate, I wasn’t even functional”. His ability to read books was severely hampered. “Every book I picked up had few sentences which did…

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Josephine Macalister Brew, youth work and informal ...

Posted: (52 years ago) Born on February 18, 1904 in Llanelli, Carmarthenshire (and registered as Mary Winifred Brew), the first months of her life were spent in a pleasant house on Park Terrace overlooking a small park near to the centre of the town. Mary Winifred was one of three sisters (the other two being Margaret and Betty). Her father, Frederick Charles Brew is listed as a boot salesman on her birth certificate – although later she was to talk of his being in the army. The family appears to have moved a number of times while she wa…

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Arthur Sweatman: Youths’ clubs and institutes – infed.org:

Posted: (52 years ago) Of course, no good is without some attendant evil, and the abuse of a good thing is no argument against its use. But it is by no means clear that bagatelle-playing is so decided a benefit for youths as to counterbalance its dangers. Unquestion­ably it is of the greatest importance, as was well urged by two highly intelligent and respectable ...

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Jean-Jacques Rousseau on nature, wholeness and ... - infed.org

Posted: (52 years ago) Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712 – 1778) was born in Geneva (June 28) but became famous as a ‘French’ political philosopher and educationalist. Rousseau was brought up first by his father (Issac) and an aunt (his mother died a few days after his birth), and later and by an uncle. He had happy memories of his childhood – although it had some odd features such as not being allowed to play with children his own age. His father taught him to read and helped him to appreciate the countryside. He increasingly turne…

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Hannah Arendt and modernity – infed.org:

Posted: (52 years ago) Hannah Arendt was raised in Konigsberg, Germany, in 1906, the only daughter of secular Russian Jews. She excelled in her education and was reading Greek at an early age and wrestling with Kant in her mid-teens. She studied philosophy and theology at the University of Marburg and completed her doctorate at the University of Frieburg at the age of 23. Her most influential teacher, Martin Heidegger, had begun writing his magnum opus, Being and Time, shortly before they met. His rise to prominence a…

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Globalization and the incorporation of education – infed.org:

Posted: (52 years ago) To begin it is helpful to distinguish between the rise of the market, ‘with its insidious consumer-based appropriations of freedom and choice’ (Giroux 2000: 6) and its impact on education, and globalization. As we have already seen, they are wrapped up – one with another – but it has been possible to talk of the marketization of education without having to refer to delocalization and the activities of multinationals (classic features of globalization). Now, that is increasingly difficult. As we know, commercial concerns l…

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Developing youth work: Chapter 4 – The demise of ... - infed

Posted: (52 years ago) There is little need to describe at length the scale and nature of the economic restructuring which is currently taking place in the UK. The declining manufacturing base, the relative shift of employment into service industries, the internationalization of production and distribution, the utilization of ever more capital-intensive methods [page 66] of production, and the movement away from the established manufacturing centres have not only contributed to the desolation of whole regions but have also height…

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Jiddu Krishnamurti and his insights into education - infed.org

Posted: (52 years ago) Krishnamurti’s work on the nature of human beings is vast since he arguably spent more than seventy years writing and speaking about the human condition. I must again contain my comments to just those few which seem necessary for the theme of this paper. Jiddu Krishnamurti saw human beings as having different facets (like intellects, emotions, appetites, bodies, etc.) but the whole of which the facets are aspects is more important. Humans have minds as well as brains (more will be said on this later), and i…

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Classical models of managerial leadership: trait ...

Posted: (52 years ago) Leaders are people, who are able to express themselves fully, says Warren Bennis. ‘They also know what they want’, he continues, ‘why they want it, and how to communicate what they want to others, in order to gain their co-operation and support.’ Lastly, ‘they know how to achieve their goals’ (Bennis 1998: 3). But what is it that makes someone exceptional in this respect? As soon as we study the lives of people who have been labelled as great or effective leaders, it becomes clear that they have ve…

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Why youth clubs? – infed.org:

Posted: (52 years ago) [page 1] Look round the club room. Christine and Barbara are reading the current notices on the board, arms and fingers entwined. They’re both fourteen, and inseparable. Christine’s clothes hang rather shapelessly, for her body still shows the straight, severe lines of childhood. Barbara on the other hand has assumed so rapidly the outward aspect of young womanhood you just can’t believe it’s the same child who shyly asked for a place in the club six months ago. Over in a corner is Joan, feet tucked awk…

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Sissela Bok on lying and moral choice in private and ...

Posted: (52 years ago) Should we never lie? To say we should never lie seems untenable; but to open the door to lying flies in the face of an aversion captured by Charles Fried’s comment: a good person does not lie. What is special about lying that makes us willing to look for all kinds of non-lying ways to accomplish what the lie accomplishes? What the lie accomplishes is deception. Moralists have never claimed all deception is wrong, but some have claimed that all lying is wrong – and even if we don’t agree with their claim, we c…

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