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Chaos (Stanford Encyclopedia Of Philosophy)

The mathematical phenomenon of chaos is studied in sciences asdiverse as astronomy, meteorology, population biology, economics andsocial psychology. While there are few (if any) causal mechanisms suchdiverse disciplines have in common, the phenomenological behavior ofchaos—e.g., sensitivity to the tiniest changes in initialconditions or seemingly random and unpredictable behavior thatnevertheless follows precise rules—appears in many of the modelsin these disciplines. Observing similar chaotic beh…

Actived: Tuesday Apr 13, 2021

Detail: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/chaos/

Auguste Comte (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) It is difficult today to appreciate the interest Comte’s thoughtenjoyed a century ago, for it has received almost no notice during thelast five decades. Before the First World War, Comte’s movement wasactive nearly everywhere in the world (Plé 1996; Simon1963). The best known case is that of Latin America: Brazil, whichowes the motto on its flag ‘Ordem e Progresso’ (Order andProgress) to Comte (Trindade 2003), and Mexico (Hale 1989) are twoprominent examples. The positivists, i.e., the followers of Comte…

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Concepts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) We begin with the issue of the ontological status of a concept. Thethree main options are to identify concepts with mentalrepresentations, with abilities, and with abstract objects such asFregean senses.

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Epistemology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) There are many different kinds of cognitive success, and they differfrom one another along various dimensions. Exactly what these variouskinds of success are, and how they differ from each other, and howthey are explanatorily related to each other, and how they can beachieved or obstructed, are all matters of controversy. This sectionprovides some background to these various controversies.

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Civic Education (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) In its broadest definition, civic education means all the processes that affect peoples beliefs, commitments, capabilities, and actions as members or prospective members of communities. Civic education need not be intentional or deliberate; institutions and communities transmit values and norms without meaning to. It may not be beneficial: sometimes people are civically educated in ways that disempower them or impart harmful values and goals. It is certainly not limited to schooling and the edu…

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Skepticism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Much of epistemology has arisen either in defense of, or in opposition to, various forms of skepticism. Indeed, one could classify various theories of knowledge by their responses to skepticism. For example, rationalists could be viewed as skeptical about the possibility of empirical knowledge while not being skeptical with regard to a priori knowledge, and empiricists could be seen as skeptical about the possibility of a priori knowledge but not so with regard to empirical knowledge. In addition, views about …

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Anarchism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) There are various forms of anarchism. Uniting this variety is thegeneral critique of centralized, hierarchical power and authority.Given that authority, centralization, and hierarchy show up in variousways and in different discourses, institutions, and practices, it isnot surprising that the anarchist critique has been applied in diverseways.

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Weakness of Will (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) May 14, 2008  · Of course not all cases of abandoning or failing to act on a previously formed intention count as weakness of will. I intend to run five miles tomorrow evening. If I break my leg tomorrow morning and fail to run five miles tomorrow evening, I will not have exhibited weakness of will.

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Game Theory (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Game theory in the form known to economists, social scientists, andbiologists, was given its first general mathematical formulation byJohn von Neuman and Oskar Morgenstern (1944). For reasons to be discussed later, limitations in their formalframework initially made the theory applicable only under special andlimited conditions. This situation has dramatically changed, in wayswe will examine as we go along, over the past seven decades, as theframework has been deepened and generalized. Refinements are …

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The Philosophy of Digital Art (Stanford Encyclopedia of ...

Posted: (0 seconds ago) 1.1 The Digital Art World In its broadest extant sense, “digital art” refers toart that relies on computer-based digital encoding, or on theelectronic storage and processing of information in differentformats—text, numbers, images, sounds—in a common binarycode. The ways in which art-making can incorporate computer-baseddigit… 1.2 The Analog-Digital Distinction The classical account of the analog-digital distinction is found inNelson Goodman’s Languages of Art (1976). In factGoodman’s account remains practically the only generalaccount of the distinction. While David Lewis (1971) raises a seriesof objections to Goodman’s account, Lewis’ alternativeaccount appli… 1.3 Digital Art: Production Whether or not a work of digital art is a work of representationalart, and even with the most abstract works of digital art, there arelayers of representation involved in the complex processes of theirproduction and presentation. Most of these layers, and arguably themost important ones, are digital. Where there …

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Metaethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) The range of issues, puzzles and questions that fall withinmetaethics’ purview are consistently abstract. They reflect thefact that metaethics involves an attempt to step back from particularsubstantive debates within morality to ask about the views,assumptions, and commitments that are shared by those who engage inthe debate. By and large, the metaethical issues that emerge as aresult of this process of stepping back can be addressed withouttaking a particular stand on substantive moral issues that start…

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Josiah Royce (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Aug 03, 2004  · Josiah Royce (1855–1916) was the leading American proponent of absolute idealism, the metaphysical view (also maintained by G. W. F. Hegel and F. H. Bradley) that all aspects of reality, including those we experience as disconnected or contradictory, are ultimately unified in the thought of a single all-encompassing consciousness.

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African Sage Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) The following two examples from this text illustrate the method andpurpose of Oruka’s questioning. When asked what he thought of his own(Luo) community’s idea of communalism, Paul Mbuya Akoko responded asfollows: Another sage, Okemba Simiyu Chaungo from the Bukusu community,responded to the question, “What is truth?” as follows: And in response to an Interlocutor, who asks “Why would people telllies?”, he responded: From these examples some of the distinguishing characteristics of SagePhilos…

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Aristotle’s Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Aristotle conceives of ethical theory as a field distinct from the theoretical sciences. Its methodology must match its subject mattergood actionand must respect the fact that in this field many generalizations hold only for the most part. We study ethics in order to improve our lives, and therefore its principal concern is the nature of human well-being. Aristotle follows Socrates and Plato in taking the virtues to be central to a well-lived life. Like Plato, he regards the ethical virtues (justice, courage, temperance and so on) as co…

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Color (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Dec 01, 1997  · It is of course an important question as to whether the list is accurate or complete. To make progress on that question, however, there is, a prior question to answer: what are the criteria for inclusion in the list? (Whose beliefs are they supposed to be?) On the face of it, they are beliefs of those who have mastery of the concepts of color ...

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Absolute and Relational Theories of Space and Motion ...

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Category Theory (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) 1.1 Definitions Categories are algebraic structures with many complementary natures,e.g., geometric, logical, computational, combinatorial, just as groupsare many-faceted algebraic structures. Eilenberg & Mac Lane(1945) introduced categories in a purely auxiliary fashion, aspreparation for what they called funct… 1.2 Examples Almost every known example of a mathematical structure with theappropriate structure-preserving map yields a category. 1. The category Setwith objects sets and morphisms the usualfunctions. There are variants here: one can consider partial functionsinstead, or injective functions or again surjective functio… 1.3 Fundamental Concepts of the Theory Category theory unifies mathematical structures in two different ways.First, as we have seen, almost every set theoretically definedmathematical structure with the appropriate notion of homomorphismyields a category. This is a unification provided within a settheoretical environment. Second, and perhaps eve…

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Philosophy of Mathematics (Stanford Encyclopedia of ...

Posted: (0 seconds ago) On the one hand, philosophy of mathematics is concerned with problemsthat are closely related to central problems of metaphysics andepistemology. At first blush, mathematics appears to study abstractentities. This makes one wonder what the nature of mathematicalentities consists in and how we can have knowledge of mathematicalentities. If these problems are regarded as intractable, then onemight try to see if mathematical objects can somehow belong to theconcrete world after all. On the other hand, it ha…

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Ramsey and Intergenerational Welfare Economics (Stanford ...

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Ramsey’s goal was practical: “How much of a nation’s output shouldit save for the future?” The demographic profile over time was taken byhim to be given, meaning that future numbers of people were seen asexogenous and predictable. We were therefore to imagine that economicpolicies have a negligible effect on reproductive behaviour (but seeDasgupta, 1969, for a study of the joint population/saving problem,using Classical Utilitarianism as the guiding principle). Parfit (1984)christene…

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Computational Linguistics (Stanford Encyclopedia of ...

Posted: (0 seconds ago) 1.1 Goals of computational linguistics The theoretical goals of computational linguistics include theformulation of grammatical and semantic frameworks for characterizinglanguages in ways enabling computationally tractable implementations ofsyntactic and semantic analysis; the discovery of processing techniquesand learning principles that e… 1.2 Methods of computational linguistics The methods employed in theoretical and practical research incomputational linguistics have often drawn upon theories and findingsin theoretical linguistics, philosophical logic, cognitive science(especially psycholinguistics), and of course computer science.However, early work from the mid-1950s to around …

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Consequentialism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) The paradigm case of consequentialism is utilitarianism, whoseclassic proponents were Jeremy Bentham (1789), John Stuart Mill (1861),and Henry Sidgwick (1907). (For predecessors, see Schneewind 1997, 2002.)Classic utilitarians held hedonistic act consequentialism. Actconsequentialism is the claim that an act is morally right if andonly if that act maximizes the good, that is, if and only if the totalamount of good for all minus the total amount of bad for all is greaterthan this net amount for any incompatible act avail…

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Philosophy of Medicine (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) One of the fundamental and most long-standing debates in thephilosophy of medicine relates to the basic concepts of health anddisease (see concepts of health and disease). It may seem obvious what we mean by such statements: people seektreatment from medical professionals when they are feeling unwell, andclinicians treat patients in order to help them restore or maintaintheir health. But people seek advice and assistance from medicalprofessionals for other reasons, such as pregnancy which can...

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Presupposition (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Speakers take a lot for granted. That is, they presuppose information. As we wrote this, we presupposed that readers would understand English. But we also presupposed, as we wrote the last sentence, repeated in (1), that there was a time when we wrote it, for otherwise the fronted phrase “as we wrote this” would not have identified a time interval. (1) 1. As we wrote this, we presupposed that readers wouldunderstand English. We also presupposed that the sentence was jointly authored, for otherwise “…

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Cosmology and Theology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Oct 24, 2011  · Of course, there are also theists who interpret Genesis metaphorically as implying that the universe was created, but not indicating a specific age for the universe. For these theists, finding that the universe is finitely old might confirm rather than undermine their belief.

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The Incommensurability of Scientific Theories (Stanford ...

Posted: (0 seconds ago) In the influential The Structure of Scientific Revolutions(1962), Kuhn made the dramatic claim that history of science revealsproponents of competing paradigms failing to make complete contactwith each other’s views, so that they are always talking atleast slightly at cross-purposes. Kuhn characterized the collectivereasons for these limits to communication as the incommensurability ofpre- and post-revolutionary scientific traditions, claiming that theNewtonian paradigm is incommensurable with its Car…

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Modularity of Mind (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) In his classic introduction to modularity, Fodor (1983) lists ninefeatures that collectively characterize the type of system thatinterests him. In original order of presentation, they are: 1. Domain specificity 2. Mandatory operation 3. Limited central accessibility 4. Fast processing 5. Informational encapsulation 6. ‘Shallow’ outputs 7. Fixed neural architecture 8. Characteristic and specific breakdown patterns 9. Characteristic ontogenetic pace and sequencingA cognitive system counts as …

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Philosophy of Cosmology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Physical cosmology has achieved a consensus Standard Model (SM), basedon extending the local physics governing gravity and the other forcesto describe the overall structure of the universe and its evolution.According to the SM, the universe has evolved from an extremely hightemperature early state, by expanding, cooling, and developingstructures at various scales, such as galaxies and stars. This modelis based on bold extrapolations of existing theories—applyinggeneral relativity, for example, at le…

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Evolution (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) The definition of evolution given at the outset of this entry is verygeneral; there are more specific ones in the literature, some of whichdo not fit this general characterization. Here is a sampling. Although the work of Charles Darwin (see the entry on Darwinism) is usually the starting point for contemporary understandingsof evolution, interestingly, he does not use the term in the firstedition of On the Origin of Species, referring instead to“descent with modification”. In the early-mid 20thcentury, the “modern synt…

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Henry David Thoreau (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Thoreau was born in Concord, Massachusetts in 1817 and died there in1862, at the age of forty-four. Like that of his near-contemporarySøren Kierkegaard, Thoreau’s intellectual career unfoldedin a close and polemical relation to the town in which he spent almosthis entire life. After graduating from Harvard in 1837, he struck up afriendship with fellow Concord resident Ralph Waldo Emerson, whoseessay “Nature” he had first encountered earlier that year.Although the two American thinkers had a t...

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Developmental Biology (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) 1.1 Historical Considerations Developmental biology is the science that investigates how a varietyof interacting processes generate an organism’s heterogeneousshapes, size, and structural features that arise on the trajectoryfrom embryo to adult, or more generally throughout a life cycle (Love2008; Minelli 2011a). It represents an exemplary a… 1.2 Developmental Phenomena Most of the properties that developmental biologists attempt toexplain are structural rather than functional. For example, adevelopmental biologist concentrates more on how tissue layers fold orhow shape is generated than on what the folded tissue layers do or howthe shape functions. The ontogeny … 1.3 Developmental Mechanisms A developmental mechanism is a mechanism or process thatoperates during ontogeny (see McManus 2012 for discussion). At leasttwo different types of developmental mechanisms can be distinguished(Love 2017a): molecular genetic mechanisms (signaling or generegulatory networks; Section 3.1) and cellula…

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Henry Sidgwick (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Perhaps no region of Sidgwick’s work has been the subject ofgreater interpretive controversy than his epistemology. The early workof Schneewind (1963), Rawls (1971, 1975), and Schultz (1992) played upthe dialectical side of Sidgwick’s approach and the ways inwhich he anticipated the Rawlsian account of the method of reflectiveequilibrium. Reactions to any such interpretation, which supposedlyaccorded a too generous role to “received opinion” inSidgwick’s methodology, came from Singer (1974) and many …

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Prisoner’s Dilemma (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) The sections below provide a variety of more precise characterizations of the prisoner's dilemma, beginning with the narrowest, and survey some connections with similar games and some applications in philosophy and elsewhere. Particular attention is paid to iterated and evolutionary versions of the game. In the fomer, the prisoner's dilemma game is played repeatedly, opening the possibility that a player can use its current move to reward or punish the other's play in previous moves in order to induce cooperati…

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Abduction > Peirce on Abduction (Stanford Encyclopedia of ...

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Even if “making a given fact a matter of course” can be read as “giving a satisfactory explanation of that fact,” it is remarkable that there is no reference in Peirce’s writings on abduction to the notion of best explanation. Some satisfactory explanations might still be better than others, and there might even be a unique best one.

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Albert the Great (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) The precise date of Albert’s birth is not known. It is generallyconceded that he was born into a knightly family sometime around theyear 1200 in Lauingen an der Donau in Germany. He was apparently inItaly in the year 1222 where he was present when a rather terribleearthquake struck in Lombardy. A year later he was still in Italy andstudying at the University of Padua. The same year Jordan of Saxonyreceived him into the Dominican order. He was sent to Cologne in orderto complete his training for the order. He finis…

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Action (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) It has been common to motivate a central question about the nature ofaction by invoking an intuitive distinction between the things thatmerely happen to people — the events they undergo— and the various things they genuinely do. The latterevents, the doings, are the acts or actions of theagent, and the problem about the nature of action is supposed to be:what distinguishes an action from a mere happening or occurrence? Forsome time now, however, there has been a better appreciation of thevagaries of the …

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Frege’s Theorem and Foundations for Arithmetic (Stanford ...

Posted: (0 seconds ago) In this section, we describe the language and logic of thesecond-order predicate calculus. We then extend this calculus with theclassical comprehension principle for concepts and we introduce andexplain λ-notation, which allows one to turn open formulasinto complex names of concepts. Although Frege’s own logic israther different from the modern second-order predicate calculus, thelatter’s comprehension principle for concepts andλ-notation provide us with a logically perspicuous way ofrepresenting Frege’s …

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Policy on Course Readers (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Basically, if you want to distribute printed copies of an SEP entry in a course reader (i.e., distribute a photocopied printout of the HTML or PDF version), you will need permission of the author. By contrast, the electronic distribution of SEP entries in course readers …

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Ancient Ethical Theory (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) In their moral theories, the ancient philosophers depended on several important notions. These include virtue and the virtues, happiness (eudaimonia), and the soul. We can begin with virtue. Human excellence can be conceived in ways that do not include the moral virtues. For instance, someone thought of as excellent for benefiting friends and harming enemies can be cruel, arbitrary, rapacious, and ravenous of appetite. Most ancient philosophers, however, argue that human excellence must include the moral virt…

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Isaac Newton (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Newton was born into a Puritan family in Woolsthorpe, a small villagein Linconshire near Grantham, on 25 December 1642 (old calendar), a fewdays short of one year after Galileo died. Isaac's father, afarmer, died two months before Isaac was born. When his motherHannah married the 63 year old Barnabas Smith three years later andmoved to her new husband's residence, Isaac was left behind with hismaternal grandparents. (Isaac learned to read and write from hismaternal grandmother and mother, …

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Privacy and Medicine (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) This section will highlight philosophical issues relating toinformational privacy and medicine. In medical contexts, the“privacy” at issue is very often“confidentiality” (DeCew 2000). Health care professionalsacknowledge ethical duties to keep medical information private (APA2002; AAMFT 2001; APhA 1994). Physicians, nurses, hospitals,pharmacists, and insurers are required by law and professional codesto practice confidentiality. Since the 1990s, in policy discussions ofhealth policy and …

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Kant’s Philosophy of Science (Stanford Encyclopedia of ...

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Oct 21, 2003  · In the course of the Physical Monadology, Kant also argues for the necessity of attractive and repulsive forces and attributes a significant role to the force of inertia. Kant's acceptance of such Newtonian principles represents an important change of position over the True Estimation , where Kant rejects the principle of inertia and pursues a ...

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Coercion (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Historically, the use of coercion by powerful actors has been of greatconcern to philosophers and legal theorists. Detailed attention tounderstanding the concept coercion, however, is a relativelyrecent phenomenon. One effect of this discrepant attention is that itis sometimes difficult to determine what precise meaning earlierwriters intended in their discussions of “coercion,” aswell as to decide whether “coercion” captures somethingdifferent from or related to other frequently used terms, such asviolence, …

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Feminist Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) As this entry describes, feminism is both an intellectual commitmentand a political movement that seeks justice for women and the end ofsexism in all forms. Motivated by the quest for social justice,feminist inquiry provides a wide range of perspectives on social,cultural, economic, and political phenomena. Yet despite many overallshared commitments, there are numerous differences among feministphilosophers regarding philosophical orientation (whether, forexample, Continental or analytic), on...

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Moral Realism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Perhaps the longest standing argument is found in the extent anddepth of moral disagreement. The mere fact of disagreement does notraise a challenge for moral realism. Disagreement is to be found invirtually any area, even where no one doubts that the claims at stakepurport to report facts and everyone grants that some claims aretrue. But disagreements differ and many believe that the sort ofdisagreements one finds when it comes to morality are best explained bysupposing one of two things: (i) that moral claims …

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Cultural Evolution (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Dec 23, 2007  · Of course we acquire traits from others by learning. And of course those others from whom we learn can include peers as well as parents. In part, we can respond to this bewilderment by pointing to the virtues of clarifying the conditions required for cultural inheritance to overcome natural selection. Cavalli-Sforza and Feldman argue that if ...

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Facts (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Many metaphysicians are interested in the modal sphere. They do notonly want to determine which entities there actually are andtheir actual properties. They wish to formulate claims withmodal content, they want to determine which entities therecan or must be, and which are their propertiesacross all (metaphysically) possible worlds. In this section we deal with some basic modal issues related to facts.More precisely, we shall present and compare certain principlesinvolving facts and (possible) worl…

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Descartes’ Physics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

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17th and 18th Century Theories of Emotions > Hobbes on the ...

Posted: (0 seconds ago) Unlike Descartes, Hobbes wrote no single work devoted to theemotions. But a number of texts contain extensive discussions:chapters 7, 9 and 12 of the Elements of Law (ms. 1640);de Cive (1642); chapters 6 and 13 (among others) ofLeviathan (1651); chapter 25.12-13 of de Corpore(1655); and chapter 11 of de Homine(1658). How Hobbesidentifies and classifies the passions changes over the years. Butother views remain remarkably consistent: particularly theidentification of passions as a kind of motion internal to th…

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Informal Logic (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

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